Baiard2 (s.xiii2/4)

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Baiard2 (s.xiii2/4)


[ FEW: 1,202a badius; Gdf: 1,551a baiart; GdfC: ; TL: ; DEAF: ; DMF:  baiart; TLF: ; OED:  bayard; MED:  baiard n.1; DMLBS: 175b baiardus ]

AND1 had only one entry for baiard, corresponding to the first two baiard entries here (which were also conflated in the print and online editions of AND2 until the present revision in November 2013). On the whole, it seems to make sense to separate into two entries baiard “bay, dappled horse” (adj. and subst.) < badius (baiard1) and the proper name Baiard (Baiard2), the mythological horse of Les Quatre Fils Aymon which acquired a certain notoriety in both French and English. On this, see especially W. Rothwell, “Anglo-French and English society in Chaucer’s The Reeve’s Tale”, English Studies, 87:5 (2006), 511-538 (pp. 511-514). To this may be added the isolated examples of Bayard in English place-names: see David Parsons, Tania Styles, Carole Hough, The Vocabulary of English Place-Names (Nottingham, Centre for English Name Studies, 1997), 38: Bayard’s Green (field-name), 1194 Northamptonshire; Bayardacher (field-name), 1361 West Yorkshire; Bayard’s Cove, 1351 Devonshire. A parallel is the way in which Renart (originally the eponymous protagonist of the O.F. Roman de Renart) became the normal word for “fox” in French (replacing goupil < vulpĕcŭla); reflexes of renart survive in dialectal English (Survey of English Dialects IV.5.11).

AND2 added baiardour, with a gloss which has now been modified; implicit in baiardour is the simplex baiard, widely attested in continental French (Gdf and DMF), and found in both English and (especially) Latin. The OED only has baiard from 1642, and the MED citations could be construed as being Latin, not Middle English; as, indeed, could those here in baiard3. AND2’s baiart1 is the same word with a slightly extended sense (the semantic extension will be obvious enough to anyone who has ever slept on an old-fashioned camp bed) and two of DMLBS’s apparently Latin attestations could be Anglo-Norman, and so are included here.

Baiard3 is of uncertain origin (see TLF bard). The FEW proposes bajulus, rejected by TLF on phonetic grounds (no early forms have -ill-); implicitly by OED sub baiardour (“Erroneously connected in the Dictionaries with Latin bājulātor”), and by REW (888 in fine); MED suggests it is “prob. a special use of baiard (1)”, “bay horse”, a position adopted also by G. Rohlfs (cf. Corominas, DCECL 1,430b). This is semantically explicable (cf. English clothes-horse, saw-horse; French chevalet; Italian cavaletto).

The cognate words in other Romance languages are probably French borrowings: Occitan (baiart), Catalan (baiard: Alcover/Moll, DCBV 2,212a), Castilian (baiardo: Corominas, DCECL 1,430b) and Italian (baiardo: DEI 1,408a).


geter la sele sur Baiard, munter en Baiard
1literaturename(after the name of a mythological horse in French romance) to get on one's high horse
( s.xiii2; MS: s.xiv2/4 )  Ki femme ad ou amie Qe sovent plure e crie Pur mounter en Baiard, S'il la lesse mounter [...] Jeol (e) tieng a fol musard  23
( c.1305; MS: c.1330 )  Jettez dounk la sele sur Baiard de Brie. E quele est la sele sur surquiderie?  377
estre sur Baiard be puffed up with pride
( s.xiii2/4; MS: c.1300 )  Ja sunt sur Baiard Les vices e tard, mes serunt destrud  613
mettre en Baiard make puffed up with pride
( c.1240; MS: c.1300 )  Et tant furent (=Jews) en Baiard mis Ke durement se sunt entremis De aviler Deu et sa duce mere  152.39
This is an AND2 Phase 1 (A-E) entry © 2000-2006 The Anglo-Norman Dictionary. On-line entry partially revised after the print version of AND2 went to press (2007-03-22) The printed edition of AND2 A-E is published by Taylor & Francis for the MHRA, sole owners of the print-media publication rights. All other rights reserved. Digitisation funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council of the United Kingdom.