picage (1280)

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picage (1280)

[ gdw]

[ FEW: *8,433b picus; Gdf: ; GdfC: ; TL: ; DEAF:  picage; DMF: ; TLF: ; OED:  pickage n.; MED:  pikage n.; DMLBS: 2273b picagium ]
pichage,  pickage,  pikage,  pychage  

The word is attested in Latin from as early as 1156, considerably earlier than in Middle English (1405) or Anglo-Norman (1279-80). OED (Third Edition 2006), MED and DMLBS agree on the definition of ‘payment for the right to break ground to erect market stalls’, and associate this word with pic1– the tool used for breaking up the ground. However, a form like pychage, together with the implied sense of erecting market stalls, suggests perhaps a different origin and association with the verb piccher, i.e. ‘to pitch’ (cf. OED pitching n.1, sense 3: the setting up of a market stall [...] Also: a payment or toll for pitching in a market’). The conclusion is that there may have been two different lexemes – one related to the using of a pickaxe for breaking the ground, and the other related to the action of setting up or pitching –, but their overlapping senses and etymologies make it difficult to treat them as two different entries.


1taxmerch.pickage, toll for breaking the ground for setting up booths or stalls at fairs, etc.
( 1280 )  Les barons [...] se pleyntrent al abbé ke seon gardeyn [...] avoyt lor pyers destreynt [...] pur pychage et propage en prejudice de lur franchise [...]. Et respondu lur fu de par l'abbé ke en cele destresse et demande yl n'entendy nul tort fer pur ceo ke il n'entendy nule franchise si large ke peut autry terre meynoverer sanz gré fere  8
( 1341-42 )  [...] q'il nous ad graunté d'estre quites de tolone, murage, picage, pontage, estallage etc.  16.1 Ed III 117
( 1331-65 )  sont quittes de coustumes de tonneu, morage, pauage, pontage, passage, stallage, lastage, hidage, kayage, strandage, terrage, pikage, ankerrage et de toutz tielz coustumes par tout le roialme d'Engleterre  164
( 1376 )  Et en aide d'ycells charges supportier et susteigner, mesme le mair, aldermans et communes de la ville averont devers eulx [...] la stallage des bouchers et la stallage des drapers et mercers, et auxint le picage en la marché  ii 359
taxmerch.right to exact pickage
( 1361 )  ad entre autres fraunchises tolun, stallage, pickage et tronage en la dite ville  ii 117
pic#1  piccher  picchynge 
This is an AND2 Phase 4 (N-O/U-P-Q) entry. © 2013-17 The Anglo-Norman Dictionary. All rights reserved. Funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council of the United Kingdom.